Taegeuk I-jang or Yi-jang is the second pattern of World Taekwondo Federation. It is derived from Tae of the eight divine signs known as Palgwe. Its meaning is sometimes interpreted as hard on the inside and soft on the outside. It is also interpreted as lake or stream. The student now has a lake of knowledge, a still body of basics that can work on its own, a repertoire from the previous training. As the lake fills a stream develops that can break barriers with a strong enough current. Having overcome the basic training the student now learns how to punch correctly and thus punches to the face with egul momtong chirigy in confidence. The pattern has a larger emphasis on the use of momtong maki and going from apchagi to momtong chirigy. The training should accommodate this, so that the pattern can be a useful exercise to keep needed muscles and habits in shape and memory. A new exercise that every yellow belt should be introduced to is sparring. Semi-contact kickboxing would be preferable, but that doesn't need to eliminate other types of sparring. The reason semi-contact kickboxing is preferable is to practice the meaning of hard on the inside and soft on the outside, as you will need both punching range and kicking range to move in and out of ranges. In the example illustrated one is using apchagi to break down the kicking range and move in for a egul momtong chirigy. It is also used to move back into kicking range as the superior reach stops the opponent from retaliating with his baro chirigy, as the foot is drawn back he skids out of range completely on his hind foot. Apchagi is a potent tool that, if gained the right technique, can be blinding fast and serve as a range measuring jab using the feet, enabling you to go soft on the outside and then move in for the point. Hard on the inside and soft on the outside can also be seen in regards to the use of momtong maki as a block or a hammerfist in movement 5 and 6. If you are on the inside of an attackers arm when using momtong maki your nexy momtong maki can be a hammerfist to his elbow joint, possibly breaking his arm. If you are on the outside you should opt for a softer option manipulating his center of gravity as shown for movement 7,8,9 and 10 for Taegeuk Il-Jang. However, there is an exception to this. A basic throw every martial artist should master is the hip throw. This can be put in context to movement 15-16. You grab the arm near the elbow joint, as they come towards you, either on their own or by your force or positioning, you slip your other arm underneath their arm on their sides. Turning around with your knees bent and feet pointing forward you throw the opponent over your hip leading with your head. If this knocks the air out of them it is easy to put them in an armbar from this position. A more deadly grappling technique that is reserved for self-defense is the death punch, also known as dim-mak. This is found in movement 14 to 15 in the pattern. For instance an attacker is holding your arm and it is a really bad situation, maybe multiple or armed attackers, so you know that you really have to go hard and be gone or they will kill you. So you create the opening with egul maki while positioning your legs pointing away from the attacker. Then, moving your feet, turning your legs, turning your hips, turning your torso, turning your shoulders, you create massive force and deliver it through you hammerhand straight to his heart causing severe trauma. A second defense everyone should know, is a defense against bearhug from the front. There are stories about people who have broken someones spine with a bearhug. Bearhugs are also frequently happening on the street. This is for self-defense not sparring. The question is where to put your hand for maximum benefit? Preferably, you arm around him dug under the chin bone and the shoulder-blades of the attacker with a good grip on the nose. Then you drag it around, using the other hand for pushing or punching his face, now the situation is reversed and he has to let go or he will break his neck with his own resisting force. However, it will be highly unusual to break ones spine this way because the body goes where the head goes, his shoulder blades will follow and he will have to let go. But do always practice techniques like these with maximum attention to safety. When he does let go follow the circle motion, as he will be off balance and fall to the ground, now you just deliver a blow and run away. The last two techniques was very hard on the inside, now for a technique that is soft on the outside. This is a basic technique that everyone kind of knows, but very few perfect or even takes seriously. It is known as the switch-out or flank. An imagined scenario can be that you are in an escalating conflict that has yet to go out of hand. But you realize that you have a really bad positioning if it goes out of hand. Maybe you are in a corner or in between two potential attackers. Or fighting two at the same time and you don't want to be double-teamed by two attackers. So you simply flank to the other side of one of them, getting yourself in a better position to escape and if lucky getting the bonus of leaving the potential attackers in a bad position. In the example the practitoner is kind of pushing against the attacker, but more to push oneself away than to push them into each other. It needs to be fast and that limits the amount of “holding on to” one can reasonably do. And if already on the side you have a much better attack by kicking in his knee, hips and underarm ribs from the side or a punch towards the meeting of the temporal plates on the sides of the eyes, which is a deadly pressure-point. But preferably you can just run away and they won't follow, but if you get the energy from that situation telling you that they will, you drop his friend so that he will either stay with him as you take off or fight you alone. Don't get chased and stumble, then be at their mercy because you are on the ground, tired and scared. As a summery, after mastering the second WTF pattern, you have extended your repertoire with correct punches to the face. You know how to use apchagi to get in and out of punching range. You have some knowledge of grappling for sparring. You have some knowledge on how to deal with self-defense when being held. You have added more knowledge of pressure-points. And a basic understanding of positioning when dealing with self-defense or sparring with multiple opponents.